The BBC external service had a difficult time with its own government when it included negative press comment on the British role in the Suez Crisis. Whereas the study of international relations in the newly founded Soviet Union and later in communist China was stultified by officially imposed Marxist ideologyin the West the field flourished as the result of a number of factors: The traditional view that foreign and military matters should remain the exclusive preserve of rulers and other elites yielded to the belief that such matters constituted an important concern and responsibility of all citizens.
The uses for the locations included the manufacture of detonators, fuses, primers and bombs; proving grounds for testing munitions; rocket loading, testing and storage; and producing chemical agents needed in bombs and explosives.
Four of the plants were government owned and contractor operated GOCO. These plants were over seen by a military staff, but a private corporation had the contract to operate the plants. All the plants depended heavily on civilian workers for their main work force. The wartime industries brought needed money and jobs for Arkansas citizens and contributed greatly to the economy of Arkansas.
After the war, the state never returned to heavy agricultural-based economy that had been present before World War II, developing instead a more industrialized economy.
Arkansas business and political leaders lobbied for the plants and pointed out the advantages of locating plants in Arkansas. Arkansas had unlimited supplies of natural gas and coal. Arkansas offered strategic locations away from the coastal areas of the United States where the government felt the plants were safer from foreign attack and away from large population centers but with a large available labor force.
With the able bodied men needed for military service, the job of manning the defense plants fell to people that had never been in the labor force before or who had been employed in low-paying work. Handicapped people, women many who were housewives and had never worked outside the homeyoung people, older adults, and African Americans were sought for employment.
Boys and girls as young as fourteen and fifteen were hired for work. These young people changed their papers or lied about their age, and the need for workers was so great that the employment officials did not check up on the ages.
African Americans were encouraged to apply, and as segregation was still practiced in Arkansas at this time, separate areas of the employment facilities were set aside for the African Americans who came to apply for work.
The ordnance sites shared many of the same features. First, the land areas for the plants were surveyed and taken over by the United States government by condemnation proceedings.
This action displaced the people living in those land areas, and the people had to move out in a short period of time. Housing shortages developed in many areas as workers from all over the state and even out of state came to work on the construction phases of the plants. Local people were given preference.
Trailer camps developed, and area residents rented out about anything they had. All but one of the plants built housing for their top military personnel, and in the case of the contractor-operated plants, housing was provided for top operating officials.
During the operating phase of the plants, most of the workers came from areas within about a fifty-mile radius of the sites, but workers from further away also came, and these workers especially had problems with housing.
Transportation was a problem, bus and rail services were developed, and individual passenger vehicles were used to transport workers.
The plants developed into almost self-contained communities. Sewer systems and water systems were developed. Roads and railroads were built within the sites. Spur lines were built to connect to outside rail services.
The plants had their own hospitals, fire departments, maintenance departments, and cafeterias, and several of the plants had recreation facilities on the grounds.
All the sites were fenced, plant guards patrolled the sites, and security was very tight. Several of the plants produced their own newsletters. The plant was the first national defense industry approved for the state, and at the peak of production on November 22,14, workers were employed at the plant.
The plant was named the Arkansas Ordnance Plant and was one of the first plant of its kind in the nation.
The facility had several assembly lines that occupied clusters of buildings where fuses, boosters, detonators, and primers were produced. The first assembly line was completed on March 4,and additional lines were all operational by June of The majority of the production line workers were women called WOWs women ordnance workers.
In August12, employees were working at the plant, and about seventy-five percent of these were female.Rather, war may simply disrupt social norms, with sexual changes as a result (another case of reverse causality from war to gender). 6 Figure US airmen in England, [AP/Wide World Photos.]. During World War II, Arkansas underwent fundamental social and economic changes that affected all parts of the state.
From the creation of ordnance plants to the presence of prisoners of war (POWs) and Japanese-American internees, the impact of the war meant that the Arkansas of was vastly different from the Arkansas of The legacy of the war and assumptions about gender roles Because the war destroyed so many lives and reshaped the international political order, it is understandable to view it as a catalyst for enormous changes in all aspects of life, including ideas about gender and the behaviour of women and men.
During World War II, roles and ideas of women changed in many ways that affected more than just the women, but also the entire nation and how women would be seen for generations to come.
Naturally, these changes greatly affected women as a whole and there is little doubt that the roles women took on in society change the outlook of what . The idea that World War I was a watershed in gender relations has pervaded both contemporary narratives and historiography.
In contrast to earlier studies, research now tends to give a more nuanced and differentiated view on war-related change that distinguished war and postwar state policies as well as public discourse from individual .
International relations: International relations, the study of the relations of states with each other and with international organizations and certain subnational entities (e.g., bureaucracies, political parties, and interest groups).
It is related to a number of other academic disciplines, including political science.