After your introduction, transition by explaining what the author of the article you have written has to say about this topic. Briefly explain the main points of the article that you want to talk about. Then you will give your thesis. Johnson gives statistics showing that talking on a cell phone is as dangerous as driving drunk.
Much like solving a jigsaw puzzle, bottom-up models of the reading process say that the reading puzzle is solved by beginning with an examination of each piece of the puzzle and then putting pieces together to make a picture. Two bottom-up theories of the reading process remain popular even today: In their reading model, LaBerge and Samuels describe a concept called automatic information processing or automaticity.
This popular model of the reading process hypothesizes that the human mind functions much like a computer and that visual input letters and words is sequentially entered into the mind of the reader.
Because each computer and by comparison the human mind has a limited capacity available for multitasking, attention must be shifted from one job to another. An example of automaticity in action can be seen in the common skill of learning to ride a bike.
Novice bike riders focus so intently on balancing, turning the handlebars, and pedaling that they sometimes fail to attend to other important tasks like direction and potential dangers. Similarly, a reader who is a poor decoder focuses so much of his attention on phonics and other sounding out strategies that he has little brainpower left for comprehending.
In contrast, children who are accomplished bike riders can ride without hands, carry on a conversation with a friend, dodge a pothole in the road, and chew gum at the same time. In summary, the LaBerge and Samuels model predicts that if reading can occur automatically, without too much focus on the decoding process, then improved comprehension will be the result.
Although bottom-up theories of the reading process explain the decoding part of the reading process rather well, there is certainly more to reading than decoding. Truly, the whole purpose of reading is comprehension.
Bottom-up theories of reading view reading as an essentially passive process, wherein the reader decodes the intended message of the writer by moving from the lowest level, such as letters and words, towards the higher levels of clauses, sentences, and paragraphs. One bottom-up model, that of Goughis described by Urquhart and Weir.
His metaphorical description describes the reading process from the perception of the letters which make up the text, through to an oral realization of the text.
The reader begins with letters, which are detected by the scanner. The strings of letters are then converted into phonemes by the decoder. The output of the decoder then arrives at the librarian where it is recognized as a word.
Merlin is then utilized to apply syntactic and semantic rules in order to determine the meaning of the sentence. The final stage of the model is the Vocal System, where an oral realization of the sentence is produced by the reader. The bottom-up or decoding model of reading was also criticized by Eskey for its failure to account for the contribution of the reader, whose expectations about the text, which are informed by his knowledge of language, are employed as part of the reading process Carrell, a.
Samuels and Kamil cite the work of Stanovichwhose criticism of the bottom-up approach is based partly on the lack of feedback loops that would enable processing stages occurring later in the reading process to inform those occurring earlier.Reading Theories and Reading Instruction However, if you cannot locate a free essay that closely matches your topic, you may search over , 'Premier' essays and term papers created by our long standing affiliates.
We offer thousands of discounted 'PREMIER' essays and papers ready to download. The Theory And Practice Of Teaching Reading Comprehension Education Essay. Research has implied that a child who has yet to develop the ability of both dimensions may find it difficult to comprehend the text that they are exposed to.
So far, there are three main theories which explain the nature of learning to read. First, the traditional theory, or bottom up processing, which focused on the printed form of a text.
A Review on Reading Theories and It's Implication to the Teaching of Reading The Importance of Reading Essay Words | 5 Pages. More about Essay on The Importance of Reading. Reading Fluency and Its Effect on Reading Comprehension Words | 6 Pages;. Reading Theories Essay Reading theories Of the two approaches mentioned in reading research and literature, the bottom-up approach focuses on language elements such as grammar, vocabulary and cohesion, while the top-down.
Published: Mon, 5 Dec Learning is the “process that results in a relatively enduring change in a person or persons” (Alexander et al, ). According to Winn (), learning is a dynamic process whereby the students’ knowledge and skills are different, when compared before to after learning.