Investigating the ethical claims of the

Ethical Issues and The Elderly:

Investigating the ethical claims of the

Investigating the ethical claims of the

Contact the Division Addressing Police Misconduct Laws Enforced By The Department Of Justice The vast majority of the law enforcement officers in this country perform their very difficult jobs with respect for their communities and in compliance with the law.

Even so, there are incidents in which this is not the case. This document outlines the laws enforced by the United States Department of Justice DOJ that address police misconduct and explains how you can file a complaint with DOJ if you believe that your rights have been violated.

Federal laws that address police misconduct include both criminal and civil statutes. These laws cover the actions of State, county, and local officers, including those who work in prisons and jails. In addition, several laws also apply to Federal law enforcement officers. The laws protect all persons in the United States citizens and non-citizens.

Each law DOJ enforces is briefly discussed below. In DOJ investigations, whether criminal or civil, the person whose rights have been reportedly violated is referred to as a victim and often is an important witness. DOJ generally will inform the victim of the results of the investigation, but we do not act as the victim's lawyer and cannot give legal advice as a private attorney could.

The various offices within DOJ that are responsible for enforcing the laws discussed in this document coordinate their investigation and enforcement efforts where appropriate.

For example, a complaint received by one office may be referred to another if necessary to address the allegations. In addition, more than one office may investigate the same complaint if the allegations raise issues covered by more than one statute. What is the difference between criminal and civil cases?

Criminal and civil laws are different. Criminal cases usually are investigated and handled separately from civil cases, even if they concern the same incident. In a criminal case, DOJ brings a case against the accused person; in a civil case, DOJ brings the case either through litigation or an administrative investigation against a governmental authority or law enforcement agency.

In a criminal case, the evidence must establish proof "beyond a reasonable doubt," while in civil cases the proof need only satisfy the lower standard of a "preponderance of the evidence.

In civil cases, DOJ seeks to correct a law enforcement agency's policies and practices that fostered the misconduct and, where appropriate, may require individual relief for the victim s. Federal Criminal Enforcement It is a crime for one or more persons acting under color of law willfully to deprive or conspire to deprive another person of any right protected by the Constitution or laws of the United States.

A law enforcement officer acts "under color of law" even if he or she is exceeding his or her rightful power. The types of law enforcement misconduct covered by these laws include excessive force, sexual assault, intentional false arrests, or the intentional fabrication of evidence resulting in a loss of liberty to another.

Enforcement of these provisions does not require that any racial, religious, or other discriminatory motive existed. What remedies are available under these laws? There is no private right of action under these statutes; in other words, these are not the legal provisions under which you would file a lawsuit on your own.

Federal Civil Enforcement "Police Misconduct Provision" This law makes it unlawful for State or local law enforcement officers to engage in a pattern or practice of conduct that deprives persons of rights protected by the Constitution or laws of the United States.

The types of conduct covered by this law can include, among other things, excessive force, discriminatory harassment, false arrests, coercive sexual conduct, and unlawful stops, searches or arrests.

In order to be covered by this law, the misconduct must constitute a "pattern or practice" -- it may not simply be an isolated incident. The DOJ must be able to show in court that the agency has an unlawful policy or that the incidents constituted a pattern of unlawful conduct.

However, unlike the other civil laws discussed below, DOJ does not have to show that discrimination has occurred in order to prove a pattern or practice of misconduct. What remedies are available under this law?

Investigating the ethical claims of the

The remedies available under this law do not provide for individual monetary relief for the victims of the misconduct. Rather, they provide for injunctive relief, such as orders to end the misconduct and changes in the agency's policies and procedures that resulted in or allowed the misconduct.

There is no private right of action under this law; only DOJ may file suit for violations of the Police Misconduct Provision. Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of and the "OJP Program Statute" Together, these laws prohibit discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, and religion by State and local law enforcement agencies that receive financial assistance from the Department of Justice.It concludes those four ethical issues that the Body Shop claims.

Although the Body Shop maintains that they enhance the positive effects on the environment and society, it not really does what it claims. Chinese health and medical ethics authorities started an investigation on Monday into claims by a scientist who released videos on YouTube saying he had altered the genes of twins born earlier this month, creating the first gene edited babies.

Under the Inspector General Act of , as amended, OIG is authorized to carry out both investigations and audits to "promote economy, efficiency, and effectiveness in the administration of, and prevent and detect fraud and abuse in . Former intern seeks Brian Bosma investigation, calls on ethics chair to step aside The former intern says House Speaker Brian Bosma tried to silence her account of an alleged decades-old sexual.

Rep. Blake Farenthold, R-Texas, is currently under investigation by the House Ethics Committee due to allegations of sexual harassment by a former female employee. “I have serious ethical concerns about the paper,” said Daniel Grossman, a professor in the Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences at the University of California, San Francisco.

State of New Jersey