Thomas Minor" by John A.
Sigmund Freud's views on homosexuality Freud — was skeptical of the possibility of therapeutic conversion. Sigmund Freud was a physician and the founder of psychoanalysis. Freud stated that homosexuality could sometimes be removed through hypnotic suggestion,  and was influenced by Eugen Steinacha Viennese endocrinologist who transplanted testicles from straight men into gay men in attempts to change their sexual orientation,  stating that his research had "thrown a strong light on the organic determinants of homo-eroticism".
Her father wanted this condition changed. In Freud's view, the prognosis was unfavourable because of the circumstances under which she entered therapy, and because homosexuality was not an illness or neurotic conflict.
Freud wrote that changing homosexuality was difficult and possible only under unusually favourable conditions, observing that "in general to undertake to convert a fully developed homosexual into a heterosexual does not offer much more prospect of success than the reverse".
Patients often wanted to become heterosexual for reasons Freud considered superficial, including fear of social disapproval, an insufficient motive for change. Some might have no real desire to become heterosexual, seeking treatment only to convince themselves that they had done everything possible to change, leaving them free to return to homosexuality after the failure they expected.
Freud replied in a letter that later became famous: By asking me if I can help [your son], you mean, I suppose, if I can abolish homosexuality and make normal heterosexuality take its place. The answer is, in a general way we cannot promise to achieve it. In a certain number of cases we succeed in developing the blighted germs of heterosexual tendencies, which are present in every homosexual; in the majority of cases it is no more possible.
It is a question of the quality and the age of the individual. The result of treatment cannot be predicted. Ferenczi hoped to cure some kinds of homosexuality completely, but was content in practice with reducing what he considered gay men's hostility to women, along with the urgency of their homosexual desires, and with helping them to become attracted to and potent with women.
In his view, a gay man who was confused about his sexual identity and felt himself to be "a woman with the wish to be loved by a man" was not a promising candidate for cure. Ferenczi believed that complete cures of homosexuality might become possible in the future when psychoanalytic technique had been improved.
In her view, it was important to pay attention to the interaction of passive and active homosexual fantasies and strivings, the original interplay of which prevented adequate identification with the father.
The patient should be told that his choice of a passive partner allows him to enjoy a passive or receptive mode, while his choice of an active partner allows him to recapture his lost masculinity.
She claimed that these interpretations would reactivate repressed castration anxietiesand childhood narcissistic grandiosity and its complementary fear of dissolving into nothing during heterosexual intercourse would come with the renewal of heterosexual potency.
In these articles, she insisted on the attainment of full object-love of the opposite sex as a requirement for cure of homosexuality. In she gave a lecture about treatment of homosexuality which was criticised by Edmund Berglerwho emphasised the oral fears of patients and minimized the importance of the phallic castration fears she had discussed.
The other reason is that readers may take this as a confirmation that all analysis can do is to convince patients that their defects or 'immoralities' do not matter and that they should be happy with them.
That would be unfortunate.
Her seminal book The Psycho-Analysis of Children, based on lectures given to the British Psychoanalytical Society in the s, was published in Klein claimed that entry into the Oedipus Complex is based on mastery of primitive anxiety from the oral and anal stages.
If these tasks are not performed properly, developments in the Oedipal stage will be unstable. Complete analysis of patients with such unstable developments would require uncovering these early concerns.
The analysis of homosexuality required dealing with paranoid trends based on the oral stage. The Psycho-Analysis of Children ends with the analysis of Mr.
Klein claimed that he illustrated pathologies that enter into all forms of homosexuality: She stated that Mr. This was made possible by his recovering his belief in the good mother and his ability to sexually gratify her with his good penis and plentiful semen.A guide to online and print resources on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning, and queer people, gender expression, and sexual identity.
Adolescents’ REPORTS OF FORMAL SEXUAL HEALTH EDUCATION • “Formal” sexual health education is instruction that generally takes place in a structured setting, such as a school, youth center, church or other community-based location. This type of instruction is .
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