Just the other day January 13Kristen Pyszczyk of CBC suggested quite nicely that perhaps it would be best if people were rude to couples who, like Chip and Joanna Gaines, have more than two children. Children and Carbon Emissions Why must parents of more than two children be shamed and bullied out of reproducing?
Support Aeon Donate now As I was growing up in England in the latter half of the 20th century, the concept of intelligence loomed large. It was aspired to, debated and — most important of all — measured. At the age of 11, tens of thousands of us all around the country were ushered into desk-lined halls to take an IQ test known as the Plus.
The results of those few short hours would determine who would go to grammar school, to be Essays against global warming for university and the professions; who was destined for technical school and thence Essays against global warming work; and who would head to secondary modern school, to be drilled in the basics then sent out to a life of low-status manual labour.
The idea that intelligence could be quantified, like blood pressure or shoe size, was barely a century old when I took the test that would decide my place in the world.
To say that someone is or is not intelligent has never been merely a comment on their mental faculties. It is always also a judgment on what they are permitted to do. Intelligence, in other words, is political. Sometimes, this sort of ranking is sensible: But it has a dark side. As well as determining what a person can do, their intelligence — or putative lack of it — has been used to decide what others can do to them.
Throughout Western history, those deemed less intelligent have, as a consequence of that judgment, been colonised, enslaved, sterilised and murdered and indeed eaten, if we include non-human animals in our reckoning.
But the problem has taken an interesting 21st-century twist with the rise of Artificial Intelligence AI. In recent years, the progress being made in AI research has picked up significantly, and many experts believe that these breakthroughs will soon lead to more.
Pundits are by turn terrified and excited, sprinkling their Twitter feeds with Terminator references. To understand why we care and what we fear, we must understand intelligence as a political concept — and, in particular, its long history as a rationale for domination.
Nor does it have a direct translation into German or ancient Greek, two of the other great languages in the Western philosophical tradition. Indeed, they were obsessed with it, or more precisely a part of it: Although today many scholars advocate a much broader understanding of intelligence, reason remains a core part of it.
So when I talk about the role that intelligence has played historically, I mean to include this forebear. The story of intelligence begins with Plato.
In all his writings, he ascribes a very high value to thinking, declaring through the mouth of Socrates that the unexamined life is not worth living. Plato emerged from a world steeped in myth and mysticism to claim something new: And so he launched the idea that the cleverest should rule over the rest — an intellectual meritocracy.
This idea was revolutionary at the time. Elsewhere, the governing classes were made up of inherited elites aristocracyor by those who believed they had received divine instruction theocracyor simply by the strongest tyranny.
Aristotle was always the more practical, taxonomic kind of thinker. He took the notion of the primacy of reason and used it to establish what he believed was a natural social hierarchy.
In his book The Politics, he explains: So at the dawn of Western philosophy, we have intelligence identified with the European, educated, male human. It becomes an argument for his right to dominate women, the lower classes, uncivilised peoples and non-human animals.
While Plato argued for the supremacy of reason and placed it within a rather ungainly utopia, only one generation later, Aristotle presents the rule of the thinking man as obvious and natural. Needless to say, more than 2, years later, the train of thought that these men set in motion has yet to be derailed.
The late Australian philosopher and conservationist Val Plumwood has argued that the giants of Greek philosophy set up a series of linked dualisms that continue to inform our thought.
Together, they make relationships of domination, such as patriarchy or slavery, appear to be part of the natural order of things. Cognition, he claimed, was the business of humanity.
Descartes rendered nature literally mindless, and so devoid of intrinsic value — which thereby legitimated the guilt-free oppression of other species.
The idea that intelligence defines humanity persisted into the Enlightenment. It was enthusiastically embraced by Immanuel Kant, probably the most influential moral philosopher since the ancients. For Kant, only reasoning creatures had moral standing.
We could do with them what we liked.Global warming could bring a serious problem for the two billion people on the planet who depend on one grain for their staple diet: less nutritious rice to sustain them.
IS THIS THE START OF RUNAWAY GLOBAL WARMING?
William P Hall (PhD) President, Kororoit Institute Evolutionary Biology of Species and Organisms. Draft - 1. Introduction. A plaque is to be unveiled at a historic fire station this Saturday in memory of a Leeds firefighter who lost his life defending the city from air-raid fires during the Second World War.
How to Write an Argumentative Essay. In this Article: Article Summary Understanding the Format Selecting a Topic Structuring Your Argument Including Research and Sources Editing and Applying Final Touches Community Q&A Understanding how to structure and write an argumentative essay is a useful skill.
Strong argumentative essays present relevant evidence that supports an argument and . Climate change denial, or global warming denial, is part of the global warming plombier-nemours.com involves denial, dismissal, or unwarranted doubt that contradicts the scientific opinion on climate change, including the extent to which it is caused by humans, its impacts on nature and human society, or the potential of adaptation to global warming by human actions.
Accompanying the concerns of climate change and global warming is the media spin, propaganda, and special interests. For many years in some countries, scientists and environmental groups raising concerns about climate change faced stern opposition, and at one time, ridicule.
Initially, many big businesses and countries such as the United States were openly challenging concerns of climate .