The practice became commonplace during the Middle Ages, with fathers who were looking to ensure a strong family bloodline paying top price for grooms of good ancestry. The dowry today m-bot While the dowry system still exists in India today, its function has changed somewhat, becoming an unspoken mandate and being viewed these days as something of a bargaining chip when arranging marriages. The more educated a groom is, the more money his family can demand as a dowry.
Untouchability in India Untouchability Untouchability is a menace and social evil associated with traditional Hindu society. It is being practiced since times immemorial and despite various efforts made by social reformers such as Dr.
Ambedkar; and despite there being provision on abolition of untouchability in our Constitution under Article 17, the evil is still in practice in our country. What is Untouchability Untouchablity in simple terms can be understood as a practice whereby a particular class or caste of persons are discriminated with on the ground of their being born in that particular caste or on the ground of their being members of those social groups involved in menial jobs.
The discrimination can be in the form of physical or social boycott from the society. It was believed that people of higher castes could become impure even if a shadow of an untouchable person touches him and to re-gain his purity he had to take a dip into holy waters of the Ganga.
Who Are Untouchables in India?
Those born as Brahmans are priests and teachers; Kshatriyas are rulers and soldiers; Vaisyas are merchants and traders; and Sudras are laborers.
Untouchables are literally outcastes. Ambedkar, untouchables form an entirely new class i. Thus, untouchables are not even recognized under the caste system of Hindus. However, historically persons born in lowest castes and classes of persons doing menial jobs, criminals, persons suffering from contagious diseases and tribals living outside the so-called civilized world were considered as untouchables.
Their exclusion from the mainstream society was based on the belief that they are impure and harmful and it was necessary to ostracized them for the overall benefit of the society. Untouchability was also practiced as a form of punishment to the law-breakers and criminals; they were socially boycotted for their misdeeds.
Who are the Dalits? They are considered impure and polluting and are therefore physically and socially excluded and isolated from the rest of society. The struggle was not only against the foreign rule of British but it was also against the social evils such as untouchability prevailing from centuries.
After Independence when great leaders of freedom struggle agreed to make our own Constitution, it was decided that there must be provisions under the Constitution regarding the abolition of social evils and upliftment of down-trodden castes and social groups etc.
In view of this objective Article 17 was added to the Constitution; Article 17 reads as follows: At the same time, it also makes it an offence punishable as per the law made by the Parliament. In order to fulfill the mandate of Article 17 of the Constitution, the Parliament enacted the Untouchability Offences Act, It made several discriminatioray practices punishable as offences, although the punishment provided were rather mild and in their actual application even milder.
Several lacunae and loopholes were found in the working of the Untouchability Offences Act, which compelled the Government to bring about a drastic amendment in the Act in Present Scenario In our society there still exist feeling of superiority of caste and birth.
We can experience the practice of untouchability in everyday life around us, especially in rural and semi-urban areas of the country. Also, in big metro cities, the inhuman practice of manual scavenging is still there. The incidence shows that the evil practice is so deep rooted in Hindu society that even after 67 years of Independence is continuing in one form or other.
However, it can be said that things are slowly changing; the mind set of modern generation is also changing. Hopefully, the wicked practice of untouchability would be removed from the society sooner rather than later and our country would usher into a new era of social equality and brotherhood which will be the true India of Gandhi and Ambedkar.In India, the dowry system puts great financial strain on the bride's family.
Payment of dowry is now prohibited under the Dowry Prohibition Act, in Indian civil law and subsequently by Sections B and a of the Indian Penal Code (IPC). Despite anti-dowry laws in India, it is still a common illegal practice.
Dowry violence is usually perpetrated by the husband or the in-laws in a bid to extract a higher dowry from the bride's family.
The dowry price paid at the time of marriage may be significant, but the greed of husbands and in-laws can grow after marriage. Dowry system is actually the transfer of money, property and other valuable assets of bride’s family to the groom’s family on the eve of marriage.
Reason: There are several reasons of prevailing dowry system in the society like. The dowry system is a cultural system in India in which the parents of the bride pay a large sum of money, and give expensive jewelry and other gifts such as car or other household items, to the parents of the groom during marriage (Borah 2).
The dowry system in India refers to the durable goods, cash, and real or movable property that the bride's family gives to the bridegroom, his parents, or . Inspite of this kind of modernization and the increasing role of women in various fields of life, the practice of dowry is still prevailing in the country.
Dowry is a curse for the Indian society as utter disrespect for women is clearly showcased in this issue.