Both sexes display this form of mutual homosexual grooming and it is more common in males. Males often have erect penises while they are mutually grooming each other. Male—male genital licking events occur repeatedly several times in the same pair, and reciprocal genital licking also occurs.
Learning Objectives This is a beginning to intermediate level course. After completing this course, mental health professionals will be able to: Outline the history of ADHD as a mental disorder.
Describe the core symptoms of ADHD. Discuss associated impairments and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Explain the typical developmental course and demographic distribution of ADHD.
Discuss the various etiologies that contribute to the development of ADHD. Apply a theoretical model of executive function and self-regulation to the clinical management of ADHD.
The materials in this course are based on the most accurate information available to the author at the time of writing. The field of ADHD grows daily, and new information may emerge that supersedes Briefly describe three causes for typical adolescent behaviour course materials.
This course will equip clinicians to have a basic understanding of the nature of ADHD, the history of the disorder, its causes, and its associated disorders and impairments. Introduction This course provides an overview of the nature of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, briefly considers its history, describes its developmental course and outcomes, and discusses its causes.
Current critical issues related to these matters will be raised along the way. Given the thousands of scientific papers on this topic, this course must, of necessity, concentrate on the most important topics in this literature. This theory shows that ADHD involves more than just attention deficits — it also comprises central problems with inhibition, self-regulation, and the cross-temporal organization of social behavior, the phenotypic effects of which radiate outward to impact various zones of social, educational, and occupational functioning.
This course was initially adapted with permission from the chapter by R. BarkleyChild Psychopathology 2nd ed. It has since been updated most recently in January Weikard was a prominent German physician who described symptoms of distractibility, poor persistence, impulsive actions, and inattention more generally quite similar to the symptoms used today to describe the inattention associated with ADHD.
Described as aggressive, passionate, lawless, inattentive, impulsive, and overactive, many of these children today would be diagnosed not only as ADHD but also as having oppositional defiant disorder ODD. Interest in these children arose in North America around the time of the great encephalitis epidemics of Children surviving these brain infections had many behavioral problems similar to those comprising contemporary ADHD Ebaugh, ; Hohman, ; Stryker, This concept evolved into that of minimal brain damage, and eventually minimal brain dysfunction MBDas challenges were raised to the original label in view of the dearth of evidence of obvious brain injury in most cases see Kessler,for a more detailed history of MBD.
Despite a continuing belief among clinicians and researchers of this era that the condition had some sort of neurological origin, the larger influence of psychoanalytic thought held sway.
The recognition that the disorder was not caused by brain damage seemed to follow a similar argument made somewhat earlier by the prominent child psychiatrist Stella Chess It set off a major departure between professionals in North America and those in Europe that continues, to a lessening extent, to the present.
Europe continued to view hyperkinesis for most of the latter half of the 20th century as a relatively rare condition of extreme overactivity often associated with mental retardation or evidence of organic brain damage. Nevertheless, the manner in which clinicians and educators view the disorder remains quite disparate; in North America, Canada, and Australia, such children have ADHD, a developmental disorder, whereas in Europe they are viewed as having conduct problem or disorder, a behavioral disturbance believed to arise largely out of family dysfunction and social disadvantage.
By the s, research emphasized the problems with sustained attention and impulse control in addition to hyperactivity Douglas, Douglastheorized that the disorder had four major deficits: Little research existed at the time on the latter subtype that would have supported such a distinction being made in an official and increasingly prestigious diagnostic taxonomy.
Yet, in hindsight, this bald assertion led to valuable research on the differences between these two supposed forms of ADD that otherwise would never have taken place. Even so, within a few years of the creation of the label ADD, concern arose that the important features of hyperactivity and impulse control were being de-emphasized when in fact they were critically important to differentiating the disorder from other conditions and to predicting later developmental risks Barkley, ; Barkley et al.
Inthe disorder was renamed as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in DSM-III-R American Psychiatric Association,and a single list of items incorporating all three symptoms was specified.
Also important here was the placement of the condition of ADD without hyperactivity, renamed undifferentiated attention-deficit disorder, in a separate section of the manual from ADHD with the specification that insufficient research existed to guide in the construction of diagnostic criteria for it at that time.
It was also observed that deficits in the control of behavior by rules characterized these children Barkley, a. All of this led to the creation of two separate, but highly correlated lists of symptoms and thresholds for ADHD when the DSM-IV was published later in the decade American Psychiatric Association, ; again, in ; one for inattention and another for hyperactive-impulsive behavior.
It also permitted, for the first time, the distinction of a subtype of ADHD that consisted chiefly of hyperactive-impulsive behavior without significant inattention ADHD, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type. Children having significant problems from both item lists, which constitute the majority of patients, were titled ADHD, combined type.
ADHD is now recognized as a single disorder varying in severity across its two highly related symptom dimensions rather than comprised of three distinct types of a disorder.
Likewise, controversy continues to swirl around the place of a subtype composed primarily of a distinct form of inattention, called sluggish cognitive tempo SCTthat is comprised of daydreaming, staring, slow processing, lethargy, and hypoactivity within the larger condition of ADHD see Clinical Psychology:The evidence we have reviewed suggests that adolescent risk taking is not a universal phenomenon and that individual differences related to at least three types of impulsivity underlie such behavior in adolescents.
Assessment should include a history of the child’s development, observation, school report and a profile of the child’s strengths and weaknesses. Table 2 provides an overview of recent framing interventions in the education sector.
The interventions differed not only in terms of the target population but also in terms of the information altered by the framing manipulation. The incorporation of these resources into the design of work environments should, ideally, be combined with organizational and facilities management policies that maximize the health- .
Institutionalisation Privation is the failure to form an attachment and can be caused following the death of both parents (most likely during times of war) resulting in children being raised in institutions or it can be caused by extreme neglect in which children are raised in isolation.
Adolescent Risk-Taking as a Public Health Problem. It is widely agreed among experts in the study of adolescent health and development that the greatest threats to the well-being of young people in industrialized societies come from preventable and often self-inflicted causes, including automobile and other accidents (which together account for .