Received Mar 26; Accepted Jul This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Creatine is one of the most popular and widely researched natural supplements. Regardless of the form, supplementation with creatine has regularly shown to increase strength, fat free mass, and muscle morphology with concurrent heavy resistance training more than resistance training alone.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background There are specific guidelines regarding the level of physical activity PA required to provide health benefits.
However, the research underpinning these PA guidelines does not address the element of social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health.
This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by children and adolescents. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model.
Methods A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in Juneand studies published since were considered for inclusion. Results A total of publications were initially identified, of which 30 met the selection criteria.
There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being improved self-esteem, social interaction followed by fewer depressive symptoms.
Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health above and beyond improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, team sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation.
A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature.
Conclusion It is recommended that community sport participation is advocated as a form of leisure time PA for children and adolescents, in an effort to not only improve physical health in relation to such matters as the obesity crisis, but also to enhance psychological and social health outcomes.
It is also recommended that the causal link between participation in sport and psychosocial health be further investigated and the conceptual model of Health through Sport tested.
Active people benefit from higher levels of health-related fitness and are at lower risk of developing many different disabling medical conditions than inactive people [ 12 ]. It is widely acknowledged that the health benefits of participation in PA are not limited to physical health but also incorporate mental components [ 12 ].
Extensive research has resulted in clear recommendations of the level of PA required to produce health benefits [ 13 ]. There are specific health-related recommendations for children and adolescents distinct from those for adults. For people aged 5—17 years it is recommended that they undertake moderate or vigorous activities for at least 60 minutes per day [ 4 ].
Regular maintenance of this level of activity by children and adolescents can result in increased physical fitness, reduced body fat, favourable cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk profiles, enhanced bone health and reduced symptoms of depression and anxiety [ 1 ].
Whilst many different health benefits of participation in PA are acknowledged, the vast majority of research has focused on the physical health benefits of participation in PA, with less research focused on the mental and social health aspects. Even though the World Health Organisation definition of health incorporates physical, mental and social health domains, the research providing evidence to the PA guidelines does not specifically address social health.
However, the literature informing PA guidelines does suggest that aspects such as social support may contribute to some of the explanations of mental health outcomes [ 1 ]. Leisure-time PA is one domain of PA. Sport is one type of leisure-time PA which is organised and usually competitive and played in a team or as an individual [ 5 ].
Participation in sport is very popular among children.
However there is evidence that participation in sport peaks at around 11—13 years before declining through adolescence [ 67 ]. Conversely, there is research indicating that children who are active through sport are more likely to be physically active in adulthood than those who do not participate in childhood sport [ 89 ].
Further, substantial public investment in sport development has been justified in terms of a range of health benefits [ 10 ], but without a clear understanding of the best way to achieve maximum health benefits - both mental and physical.
Extensive research has been conducted on the determinants of participation in PA [ 611 ] and on interventions that attempt to increase PA participation [ 12 ], with relatively little research focusing more specifically on sport [ 913 ].
Also, with regard to the health benefits of PA, the research has generally not extended to the mental and social health benefits of sport participation in particular.
Determinants of PA are increasingly being understood using socio-ecological models, whereby intrapersonal, interpersonal, organisational, environmental and policy variables are identified as influences on participation [ 15 - 18 ].
As Earp and Ennett explain, conceptual models in health do take an ecological perspective, implying that behaviours or health outcomes result from the interaction of both individual and environmental determinants [ 1419 ]. In terms of the sport and health nexus, we are not aware of a conceptual model that depicts the specific mental and social health outcomes of sport participation.
Conceptual models have been developed which show the relationship between different types of PA, including sport, and the intensity and context of participation [ 20 ], however they do not extend to the health benefits of participation.
In one systematic review of the effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity, a conceptual model of the relationship between interventions, modifiable determinants, immediate outcomes and health outcomes was developed [ 21 ].The Positive Effects of Sports on at Risk Youth Keeps kids off the streets Make better choices Occupies their time Improves motor skills Improves self-awareness Several studies declare that sport is a positive and rewarding experience for children and adolescents.
Jul 22, · Thus most studies confirmed that exercise has more positive effects on bone improvement in early periods of age that extend into adulthood to conserve bone or resist bone loss or disorder in into adulthood 88).
Thus, exercise at younger ages appears to have a significant role in preventing bone loss or osteoporosis in the elderly. form.3 Exercise has multiple positive effects in older adults, including those with disabilities.
More precisely, exercise prevents and reduces the risk of developing secondary condi-.
Aug 15, · Similarly, Findlay and Coplan () in a longitudinal analysis over a one-year period, did not find significant effects of sport participation over the year (neither main effects of time or participation-time interactions) on social skills, self-esteem, positive adjustment or externalising problem behaviours.
However, shy children who. An effective risk management strategy is more that just a way to stave off disaster. Proper management of risk can actually make you a better business.
3 Positive Effects Of . What is known about the relationship between physical activity and cancer risk? Exercise has a number of biological effects on the body, some of which have been proposed to explain associations with specific cancers, including: Zhang D, Kang S.
Physical activity and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Breast.