When in George Orwell—social conservative, Little Englander, intellectual cosmopolitan—hopefully envisioned an English socialist revolution, he assured his readers and himself that such a mere political event, like all such past convulsions, would prove no more than a surface disturbance. Rather, by its very nature—by its inherent logic, and by the ideology, aspirations, and world-historical forces from which it springs and to which it gives expression—it perforce obliterates that culture. This essay attempts, in an admittedly eccentric way, to support that sweeping assertion. Academic studies on specialized aspects of this subject abound, but no synthetic analysis and comprehensive history has yet been published.
Incompatibility[ edit ] One of over 41, free photos, illustrations, sounds and videos uploaded to the Wikimedia Commonsthe media repository used by Wikipedia and its sister projects.
All files on the Commons must be free for commercial use. Millions of people use free content every day. Wikipedia is freely licensed and is among Allowance for individual expression essay 10 most visited websites on the planet.
Today, many of the most popular search engines directly use content from Wikipedia in their integrated results. This extended use of Wikipedia works because the license explicitly allows and encourages commercial use.
Now, if you choose an -NC license for your work, it will be incompatible with Wikipedia, other Wikimedia projects, and many other free content projects, large and small. You can make derivative works, but they have to be licensed under the same terms. Maintaining boundaries between parts of a work where some is -NC and some is not is almost impossible in a collaborative environment.
Imagine a website with collaboratively edited text that is partially -NC licensed. As text is copied from one region to another and modifications are made, it is likely that the licenses will be violated.
Many free content communities reject -NC licenses simply for philosophical reasons like the ones outlined in this article.
For example, the Wikimedia Commonsa media repository operated by Wikipedia's Wikimedia Foundation which contains more than 41, files, does not allow uploads under restrictive licenses such as the -NC variants. Allowing commercial use is also fundamental in the free software community.
Both the Open Source Definition and the Free Software Definition explicitly state that sale and other commercial uses must be allowed for a license to be considered free.
The allowance of commercial use and the avoidance of the compatibility problems that come with non-commercial terms are a big part of the widespread adoption of free software. In the scientific community, free licensing is growing as well.
The Public Library of Science recognizes the Open Access Definition for scientific content which permits commercial use and so have other large open access publishers such as BioMed Central.
Scientific knowledge, they reason, ought to be as freely available as possible. Communities like Wikimedia, Debian, or the scientific Open Access movement do not exist for their own gain — they provide free knowledge and free software to the world.
Putting your own content under a license recognized by these communities will keep it alive, and will encourage people to make active use of it in many different contexts.
This does not merely apply to inherently collaborative works; almost any conceivable work in demand can be usefully transformed or incorporated into a collaborative context. Basic and beneficial uses[ edit ] What is commercial use? You may not exercise any of the rights granted to You … in any manner that is primarily intended for or directed toward commercial advantage or private monetary compensation.
Many bloggers and blog communities on the web use advertising as a way to recoup costs and generate income. Other sites use small-scale subscription models to unlock additional features and content or disable advertising. Ask yourself if you really want to stop all these individuals from using your work.
Compilations which are sold are another example of commercial use. For example, if a music file which is licensed for non-commercial use only is included among thousands on a DVD collecting free music and sold for a small personal profit, that is a violation of the license. Note that it is not the amount of the financial gain which matters, it is the intention of the user.
Intentions are, of course, difficult to prove, and in many cases, it is best to be cautious. Even under liberal interpretations, any use in a corporate context would almost certainly be forbidden, such as the inclusion of the file on a CD bundled with a computer magazine.
Worse still are the effects that -NC licenses can have on people in the developing world, where entrepreneurship represents an opportunity to overcome poverty and the digital divide.1. Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
Corruption is the cancer at the heart of so many of our problems in the world today. Parallel leadership encourages individual expressions. On the contrary, this does not mean individualism, but the ability of the leaders to assert their strong convictions about their values and their ability as well to accommodate the values of others.
Landmark Supreme Court Cases. Reynolds v.
United States () The Court examined whether the federal anti-bigamy statute violated the First Amendment’s Free Exercise Clause, because plural marriage is part of religious practice. I tried MealSquares a while back, based on the sidebar advertisement, and liked them pretty well (“liked” in the “this works well for me” sense, not the “food reward” sense).
EFFECTS OF MOTIVATION ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE: A CASE STUDY OF GHANA COMMERCIAL BANK, KUMASI ZONE. BY THOMAS OWUSU A Thesis submitted to the Institute of Distance Learning, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in Partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of COMMONWEALTH EXECUTIVE OF MASTERS IN BUSINESS .
I. “Silliest internet atheist argument” is a hotly contested title, but I have a special place in my heart for the people who occasionally try to prove Biblical fallibility by pointing out whales are not a type of fish.